Differential Cognitive Functioning in 9-12 Years Olds Relative to Prenatal Cigarette and Marijuana Exposure
In an examination of cognitive performance of 131 (one-hundred-thirty-one), 9-12 year-old children participating in a Carleton University longitudinal study since birth, discriminant function analysis indicated a dose-dependent association between higher prenatal cigarette exposure in utero and lower performance on global intelligence test scores, with the verbal subtests of the intelligence test discriminating maximally among levels of in utero exposure. In contrast, prenatal marijuana exposure was not associated with global intelligence or the verbal subtests, but rather was negatively related to executive function tasks that require impulse control and visual analysis/hypothesis testing, and with a number of the intelligence subtests requiring these same abilities. The cigarette results extend observations made in this sample and others at earlier ages. The marijuana findings, combined with results observed at earlier ages, lead the authors to suggest that in utero exposure to marijuana may have a negative impact on aspects of neurocognitive competence that fall under the domain of executive function. Fried, P.A., Watkinson, B.M. and Gray, R. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 20 (3), pp. 293-306, 1998.
Neurocognitive function in clinically stable men with bipolar I disorder or schizophrenia and normal control subjects
Patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia have been shown to have neurocognitive deficits when compared with control subjects. The degree and pattern of impairment between psychiatric groups have rarely been compared, especially when subjects are psychiatrically stable. … Subjects with bipolar disorder were impaired in two specific domains (verbal memory and executive function). Furthermore, within the bipolar group there was a subset with relatively normal executive functioning and a subset with significant impairment. Possible reasons for the persistence of these neurocognitive deficits in some subjects with bipolar disorder during periods of euthymia are reviewed. – Biological Psychiatry, Volume 56, Issue 8, Pages 560-569 (15 October 2004).
† High doses of marijuana can produce an acute psychotic reaction; in addition, use of the drug may trigger the onset or relapse of schizophrenia in vulnerable individuals. … Marijuana intoxication can cause distorted perceptions, impaired coordination, difficulty in thinking and problem solving, and problems with learning and memory. … Marijuana has the potential to cause problems in daily life or make a person’s existing problems worse. In one study, heavy marijuana abusers reported that the drug impaired several important measures of life achievement including physical and mental health, cognitive abilities, social life, and career status.‡A number of studies have shown an association between chronic marijuana use and increased rates of anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, and schizophrenia. Some of these studies have shown age at first use to be a factor, where early use is a marker of vulnerability to later problems. However, at this time, it is not clear whether marijuana use causes mental problems, exacerbates them, or is used in attempt to self-medicate symptoms already in existence. Chronic marijuana use, especially in a very young person, may also be a marker of risk for mental illnesses, including addiction, stemming from genetic or environmental vulnerabilities, such as early exposure to stress or violence. At the present time, the strongest evidence links marijuana use and schizophrenia and/or related disorders.